An optical waveguide is constructed so as to comprise a non-solid core layer surrounded by a solid-state material and a nanopore or micropore in fluid communication with the core. The non-solid core layer has an index of refraction which is lower than the index of refraction of the surrounding solid-state material, and light can be transmitted with low loss through the non-solid core layer. In an exemplary application, the non-solid core layer comprises a sample material whose light transmission, absorption, and/or interference characteristics are to be measured. In addition, a perpendicular waveguide portion may be included for use in injecting light into the core for measuring fluorescence characteristics associated with the sample material. Most preferably, the optical waveguide is generally structured as an anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW), which comprises a Fabry-Perot reflector adjacent to the core layer, whereby light is substantially prevented from leaking out of said core in a transverse direction.


> Composite structure providing steady-state non-equilibrium distribution of free carriers and IR system using same for photon energy up-conversion

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