Compact optical devices and methods of constructing the same are disclosed. The optical devices are formed with perpendicular orientations to the surface of a supporting layer (e.g., substrate), and have three-dimensional structures rather than planar structures. The optical devices can be formed with high density on supporting layers without the need for several built-up layers. Maintaining the processing temperatures within the cure profiles of polymer optical layers is readily achieved.


> Container, toner container, image forming apparatus, and image forming process

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