Apparatus and methods for covertly determining the rate of motion between a pixel-based imaging device and a target being viewed by the pixel-based imaging device. The method involves using the pixel-based imaging device to acquire a first and a second digital image of the target. The second digital image is acquired a time interval after the first digital image. The time interval and pixel counts for the pixel set within the first and the second digital image representing a particular portion of the target are then used to determine a rate of relative motion between the pixel-based imaging device and the target. Advantageously, the rate of relative motion is determined covertly such that the locations of the pixel-based imaging device and the target are not disclosed or broadcast to third parties.


> Position-orientation recognition device

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