An electrothermal actuated refreshable Braille cells, display systems
using the cells, and methods for actuating refreshable Braille
cells/displays. One method according to the invention comprises at least
the following steps: a) providing power to a microheater within a
cylinder, wherein the cylinder has a membrane at a first end and a
microheater at a second end, and fluid in between; b) heating the fluid
with the microheater, thereby causing it to expand; and c) allowing the
membrane at the first end to bulge out, thereby forming a dot.