Conductive paths in an integrated circuit are formed using multiple undifferentiated carbon nanotubes embedded in a conductive metal, which is preferably copper. Preferably, conductive paths include vias running between conductive layers. Preferably, composite vias are formed by forming a metal catalyst pad on a conductor at the via site, depositing and etching a dielectric layer to form a cavity, growing substantially parallel carbon nanotubes on the catalyst in the cavity, and filling the remaining voids in the cavity with copper. The next conductive layer is then formed over the via hole.


> Active cantilever for nanomachining and metrology

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