Semi-permeable membranes are described that allow for the efficient processing of many liquid based feed solutions, particularly those that contain acids. The membranes of this invention are able to process such feeds with high permeate rates while maintaining excellent retention of dissolved metals, cations, and organic compounds, even in the presence of hot concentrated acids. The semi-permeable membranes of this invention are able to conduct such separations for a useful period of time due to their chemical stability towards acids and their ability to permeate acids.


> Image forming apparatus and process cartridge

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